非营利性出版物Kentucky Center for Public Service Journalism

Early winter blast prompts livestock producers in Kentucky to think about cold months ahead


由Aimee Nielson.
肯塔基大学

早期的寒冷,雪和冰就到了蓝草,这对农民施加压力,以确保他们的动物准备好冬季攻击。

“The combination of cold air and wind create windchills that cause dangerous and emergency-category periods of livestock cold stress,” said Matt Dixon, agricultural meteorologist for the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food and Environment’s Ag Weather Center.

Livestock producers should make sure animals have adequate shelter, water, dry bedding and feed to make it through cold periods. Pet owners should bring pets indoors. Animals have a higher requirement for energy in the colder months, which means they need high-quality grains and forages.

Animals have a higher requirement for energy in the colder months, which means they need high-quality grains and forages. (Photo by Aimee Nielson)

“The average horse, with a lower activity level, should eat between 1.5 and 2 percent of its body weight in feed per day to maintain its weight,” said UK equine specialist Bob Coleman. “That feed requirement goes up in the winter, as horses use more calories to keep warm. He recommended providing extra hay and making sure horses have shelter to get out of windy, damp weather.”

马必须有干净的,无人驾驶的水。科尔曼说经常检查以确保水源是开放的。水摄入量减少影响干物质摄入量。

Ambient temperatures can impact the amount of dry matter cattle eat, providing an opportunity to compensate for increased maintenance energy needs. Producers either need to increase their animals’ feed intake or increase the energy density of the diet by feeding higher quality hay or adding more grain or fat to the grain mix, UK beef specialist Jeff Lehmkuhler said.

Lehmkuhler建议生产者在冬季期间继续监控奶牛,并确保保持动物的身体状况。

“Poor quality hay may not provide adequate energy to maintain gestating cows that are entering the third trimester,” he said. “Consider having the hay tested to determine if you need to supplement during times of possible cold stress, especially for the enduring cold spells.”

生产者应考虑分离年轻和较薄的奶牛,这些奶牛可能与调节旧奶牛相同的内部绝缘,并相应补充它们,或者提供更高质量的饲料,如果可用。科尔曼说,马司公司可以根据身体状况得分使用类似的策略和单独的动物。

“生产者应该将奶牛搬到具有自然风衣的田地,或者提供人造的风洞,与谷仓不同,”Lehmkuhler建议。

“Poorly managed barns combined with poor ventilation may actually hamper efforts to improve the environmental conditions. Energy or calories are critical. If the protein level in the forage is adequate, do not make supplement decisions based on protein level; rather purchase the most affordable calories. Stay warm and keep the waterers flowing.”

毛发像家用阁楼绝缘诱捕空气一样,加强绝缘值。潮湿,泥纹减少绝缘值并增加热量损失。只需0.1英寸的雨即可立即通过消除头发降低其绝缘能力来立即冲击冷应力严重程度。适应时间,隐藏厚度,脂肪覆盖和其他因素也会影响动物经验的冷应力程度。

牛的较低临界温度(LCT)值是最低的温度或风寒,所以不需要额外的能量来维持核心体温。

“随着温度下降低于这种较低的临界值,动物的维护能量值增加以保持核心体温,”他说。“动物通过增加代谢来维持核心体温,导致更多的热量生产,以及其他热保守策略,例如将血流降至四肢,发抖和增加的摄入量。”

Lehmkuhler表示,外部和内部绝缘体都影响LCT。

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外部绝缘是头发涂层的深度和厚度,头发涂层的状况和隐藏的厚度。乳品品种等薄封闭品种往往比厚板繁殖的品种较低的绝缘因子。头发涂层的状况极为重要,作为外部绝缘屏障。

Dairy producers should make sure cows’ teats are dry before turning animals out when temperatures fall below 25 degrees Fahrenheit.

“如果你变成一个动物用湿乳房or teats, frostbite is almost a certainty,” said Michelle Arnold, UK extension veterinarian. Treat signs of frostbite immediately, since damage to the teat ends can quickly lead to damage of the keratin seal and that can allow mastitis-causing bacteria to enter the udder.”

关键是让动物在极端风寒条件下放出无风的免费场所。

“挑战是让这种空间可用,仍然提供足够的通风,以便允许新鲜空气流通,”她说。

干燥的床上用品也非常重要。如果奶牛,山羊或绵羊躺在湿床上,冻伤是一个很大的风险。生产者还需要确保动物的毛发涂层保持干燥,尽可能干净。

“也许生产者可以做的最重要的事情是在极端寒冷中照顾自己,”阿诺德说。“如果你陷入困境,你不能成为护理人员你的牲畜需要保留一套额外的衣服和卡车的毯子。一双额外的干靴也是一个伟大的计划。“


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